Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 24 pp 12097—12113

Aerosol inhalation of a hydrogen-rich solution restored septic renal function

Figure 12. Schematic diagram of how aerosol inhalation of the HRS attenuated septic renal injury by promoting macrophage M1/M2 polarization. Normally, macrophages (Mf) perform immune functions in the interstitium of the kidney. In the case of kidney injury, the permeability of the vascular endothelial cells increases. Intravascular macrophages infiltrate the interstitial spaces and form M1-type macrophages that secrete inflammatory cytokines, thus destroying renal tubular epithelial cells. After HRS treatment, hydrogen molecules can infiltrate the tissues through the blood vessels, change the inflammatory factors that are secreted in the inflammatory environment, and promote the polarization from M1-type to M2-type macrophages. M2 macrophages secrete anti-inflammatory factors to repair the damaged renal tubules.