Figure 6. Aerosol inhalation of an HRS increased M2 macrophage-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and reduced M1 macrophage-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in septic kidneys. Renal tissue mRNA expression of Il-4, Il-13, Il-6, Tnf-α, Il-10 and Tgf-β. n=6 per group. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM. Significance was calculated by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test, *: P<0.05.