Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 24 pp 12278—12294

Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances neuroprotective effects of neural stem cell exosomes after spinal cord injury via an miR-219a-2-3p/YY1 mechanism

Figure 1. Characteristics of neural stem cells (NSCs) and exosomes derived from NSCs. (A) Morphology of neurospheres with typical shape examined by light microscopy. (B) Nestin immunofluorescence (red), a marker of NSCs, in neurospheres. (C) Exosome morphology examined by transmission electron microscopy. (D) Western blot analysis of exosome surface markers. (E) Particle size distribution of Nor-Exo and IGF-Exo by Nano Sight.