Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 2 pp 1087—1103

Metformin attenuates cartilage degeneration in an experimental osteoarthritis model by regulating AMPK/mTOR

Figure 3. Expression of the p16INK4a protein in articular cartilage of the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model in mice. (A) Immunohistochemical detection of p16INK4a in tibial cartilage at 2, 5, and 10 weeks after DMM surgery. (B) Quantification of cells positively stained for p16INK4a. ***P < 0.001 between the two groups. And (C) the western blot analyses of the protein expression levels of p16INK4a protein in primary chondrocytes which were induced with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) and co-cultured with metformin (1, 2, 4, and 5 mM) for 24 h 48 h and 72 h.