Figure 6. The increase in HMGB1 levels compromised the cytoprotective effect of FGF10. (A and B) The recombinant HMGB1 plasmid transfection upregulated the HMGB1 expression and TLR4 activation. (C–E) HMGB1-overexpressing cells were treated with FGF10, after which apoptotic death and viability were measured following PM exposure. (F–H) The IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were measured via RT-qPCR. (I) The supernatant levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α obtained from the treated cells were quantified via ELISA. Data were presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of three independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs. control. #P<0.05, ##P<0.01 vs. PM. +P<0.05, ++P<0.01 vs. PM+FGF10.