Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 2 pp 1624—1642

TPGS-1000 exhibits potent anticancer activity for hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

Figure 3. Effects of TPGS treatments on HCC cell cycle progression and cell apoptosis. (A) Cell cycle progression detected by FACS analysis. Cells in G0/G1 are marked in the red area. Cells in the S phase are marked with a slash, whereas the arrowhead indicates the G2/M cells. (B) Cell apoptosis was assessed with Annexin V-PI staining. (C) The cell cycle distribution was calculated with Cell Quest Pro software. The 44 μM TPGS group produced the lowest amount of cell accumulation in the S phase (13.88%). (D) The HCC cells that were treated with 11 μM TPGS had the highest ratio of early apoptotic cells (approximately 4%), whereas with increasing TPGS concentrations in the HCC cells, the 44 μM TPGS group had the highest late apoptotic ratio, 10.4% (E).