Figure 3. Effects of TPGS treatments on HCC cell cycle progression and cell apoptosis. (A) Cell cycle progression detected by FACS analysis. Cells in G0/G1 are marked in the red area. Cells in the S phase are marked with a slash, whereas the arrowhead indicates the G2/M cells. (B) Cell apoptosis was assessed with Annexin V-PI staining. (C) The cell cycle distribution was calculated with Cell Quest Pro software. The 44 μM TPGS group produced the lowest amount of cell accumulation in the S phase (13.88%). (D) The HCC cells that were treated with 11 μM TPGS had the highest ratio of early apoptotic cells (approximately 4%), whereas with increasing TPGS concentrations in the HCC cells, the 44 μM TPGS group had the highest late apoptotic ratio, 10.4% (E).