Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 2 pp 1624—1642

TPGS-1000 exhibits potent anticancer activity for hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

Figure 5. TPGS dose dependently induced the production of ROS and reduced energy production in HCC cells. (A) ROS imaging (green fluorescence) in TPGS-treated HCC cells, scale bar = 100 μm. (B) Quantitative analysis of ROS production in TPGS-treated HCC cells. The 44 μM TPGS group had the highest ROS positive cell rate, 6.0%. (C) ΔΨ levels were analysed in HCC cells to evaluate energy production. (D) Effects of TPGS treatments on NOS activity. (E) TPGS induced an increase of cleaved PARP protein levels and LC3-II protein accumulation in TPGS-treated HCC cells. (F and G) Quantitative analysis of western blot results from (E). All protein levels were normalized with the housekeeping genes GAPDH and β-actin.