Figure 5. Oxidative metabolism and ECM remodeling is highly active in older obese female mice. Relative expression of GWAT oxidative genes - (A) Adrb3 (B) Pparγ (C) Pgc1α. Expression of GWAT senescence genes (D) p53 (E) p16 (F) p21. Expression of GWAT fibrosis and ECM remodeling genes - (G) Mmp2 (H) Mmp9 (I) Timp1 (J) Tgfβ1 (K) α-sma (L) Col1a1 in young and old obese male and female GWAT. A.U., arbitrary units normalized to Gapdh. N=5-8. (M) Collagen content in GWAT of young and old obese male and female mice, N=5. (N) Picrosirius red staining of young and old, male and female HFD GWAT positive area as a percentage. N=5. Two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni-Dunn’s post-test was performed for (A–L). Statistics from diet and sex interaction are in box. Statistical significance is indicated by *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001. Student’s t-test was performed for male and female comparisons between the same diet groups indicated by #p<0.05, ##p<0.01 ###p<0.001 and ####p<0.0001; error bars are SEM. One-way ANOVA with Student’s t-test was performed for (M–N). Statistical significance is indicated by *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001; error bars are SEM.