Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 2 pp 1965—1986

Anesthesia and surgery induce age-dependent changes in behaviors and microbiota

Figure 7. Treatment of the postoperative delirium-like behaviors by using probiotic.The comparison between the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus saline and the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus probiotic on buried food test (latency to eat food, A), Y maze test (number of arm visit, B), Y maze test (duration in novel arm, C), Y maze test (entries in novel arm, D), open field test (total distance, E), open field test (freezing time, F), open field test (time spent in center, G), and open field test (latency to center, H). (I). The comparison of the Z scores between the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus saline and the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus probiotic. There was lower composite Z score in the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus probiotic than that in the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus saline, which suggest that the treatment of probiotic mitigated the anesthesia/surgery-induced postoperative delirium-like behavior in the 18 months old mice. (J) The comparison of the brain IL-6 levels between the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus saline and the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus probiotic. (K) The comparison of the brain mitochondrial function between the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus saline and the 18 months old mice received the anesthesia/surgery plus probiotic. IL-6: interleukin-6. n = 12 in each group of the behavioral studies, and n = 6 in each group of the mitochondrial function studies. The Student’s t-test was used to analyze the data presented in (A, B, F and J). The Mann–Whitney U test was used to analyze the data presented in (CD and GH). * = P < 0.05.