Figure 2. Regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial quality control. Mitochondrial oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission is modulated by Drp1 and its receptors, Fis1 and Mff. Excessive mitochondrial fission induces mPTP opening and mitochondrial dysfunction, which results in the activation of mitochondrial pathway of cellular apoptosis. Mitochondrial fusion is regulated by Mfn1/2 and Opa1, and stabilizes the mitochondrial membrane potential and blocks the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Mitophagy is a process that breaks down damaged mitochondria and is controlled by Parkin or Fundc1.