Figure 5. Kl markedly ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in an ex vivo model. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts isolated from wild type C57BL/6 mice were pre-incubated with or without mouse rKL. After 12 h, they were randomized to be incubated with or without TGF-β and KL for another 24 h when mRNA levels of Acta2, Fn1, and Col1a1 were assessed by qPCR (A), protein levels of fibronectin, α-SMA, and α-Tubulin were examined by western blotting (B), fibronectin, α-SMA, and collagen I were stained by immunofluorescence staining (C), and migration of pulmonary fibroblasts were analyzed by transwell assay (D). Scale bars = 100 μm. **P < 0.01 vs. without TGF-β and without rKL. ##P < 0.01 vs. with TGF-β and without rKL.