Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 7 pp 6151—6171

Systemic administration of the di-apocarotenoid norbixin (BIO201) is neuroprotective, preserves photoreceptor function and inhibits A2E and lipofuscin accumulation in animal models of age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease

Figure 1. Effect of norbixin on ERG and retinal phototoxicity after BLD in BALB/c mice. (A) schematic representation of the protocol design. (B) Scotopic A wave, (C) Scotopic B wave, (D) Photopic B wave, ERG recorded 7 days after BLD. (E) Representative cryosection pictures showing Hoechst 33342 staining of the retinal cell nuclei one week after BLD. (F) Graph showing the number of photoreceptor layers measured along the retina each 200 μm from the optic nerve. (G) Histograms showing the area under the curve (AUC) calculated from the photoreceptor layer quantification and used to perform statistical analyses. IP: intra-peritoneal; no BLD: no blue light damage; no inj.: no injection; OS: outer segment; ONL: outer nuclear layer; INL: inner nuclear layer; GCL: ganglion cell layer. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 8 per group. # or *p<0.05, ## or **p<0.01, ### or ***p<0.001, #### or ****p<0.0001 compared to non-injected or to vehicle, respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett's post-test).