Figure 1. Genistein inhibits the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. A CCK-8 assay was performed to measure the effect of genistein on the proliferation of the (A) Eca-109, (B) EC9706, and (C) CaES-17 esophageal cancer cell lines, and (D) the human esophageal epithelial cell line Het-1A. The IC50 of genistein in (E) Eca-109, (F) EC9706, (G) CaES-17 and (H) Het-1A cells at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. (I) A clone formation assay was performed to detect the proliferative ability of Eca-109 cells treated with various concentrations of genistein for 9 d. Magnification, 40×. (J) Cell numbers per clone. (K) Quantification of clone numbers in each well (6-well plate). in vivo, the effect of different concentrations of genistein (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg) on (L) the cell growth of Eca-109 cells, (M) tumor diameter and (N) tumor volume (n = 6 per group). All in vitro experiments were independently repeated in triplicate. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s test (in vitro) or Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test (in vivo). Data are presented as the mean ± SD. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001; NS, not significant.