Figure 1. Experimental design and the lead location. (A) Twenty-four monkeys were randomly assigned to the four treatment groups, which differed with respect to manipulations. The time from the beginning of the manipulation is shown in the first line, and the green ticks indicate manipulation in each group. (B) 3D reconstruction of postoperative CT showed that the DBS lead was implanted through the frontoparietal skull and extended to the back. (C) The lead was accurately placed in the left ANT based on the merged pre-operative MR and post-operative CT (white arrow). The cross indicates the surgical planning target. (D) The position errors of ANT-DBS implantation between the EP-sham-DBS and EP-DBS groups were similar and ideal (n=6 in each group). NS, P> 0.05. Data were presented as mean ± SD.