Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 7 pp 6324—6339

Anterior thalamic nucleus stimulation protects hippocampal neurons by activating autophagy in epileptic monkeys

Figure 3. ANT-DBS protected hippocampal neurons of the epileptic monkeys. (A) Neuronal ultrastructure by TEM. The injury was severe in the hippocampus of EP and EP-sham-DBS groups. The injury, however, was relieved by ANT-DBS. Magnification: ×1000. (B) Higher injury grades were obtained in the EP and EP-sham-DBS groups, and this grade was alleviated by ANT-DBS. (n=3 in each group; in each monkey, twenty cells were randomly selected, and the average score for each monkey was recorded) (C) Morphology of mitochondria (white arrow) by TEM. Normal or slightly abnormal morphology of mitochondria was seen in the control and EP-DBS groups. The EP and EP-sham-DBS groups showed swelling of the mitochondrial matrix, sometimes with disrupted membrane integrity. Magnification: ×3000. The right column shows a closer view of mitochondria. (D) The number of intact mitochondria in the EP and EP-sham-DBS groups was lower than that in the control and EP-DBS groups. (n=3 in each group; in each monkey, twenty fields were randomly selected, and the average number for each monkey was recorded) (E) The grade of mitochondrial injury was higher in the EP and EP-sham-DBS groups, and reversed by ANT-DBS (n=3 in each group; in each monkey, twenty cells were randomly selected, and the average grade for each monkey was recorded). *P< 0.05; **P< 0.01; ***P< 0.001; NS, P> 0.05. Data were presented as mean ± SD.