Figure 4. ANT-DBS reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampal neurons of epileptic monkeys. Immunofluorescence staining of BDNF and NeuN in hippocampal CA1 (A) and CA3 (C) neurons. NeuN is a specific neuronal marker. BDNF expression was elevated in EP and EP-sham-DBS groups in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons and reduced by ANT-DBS. Immunofluorescent intensity of BDNF in hippocampal CA1 (B) and CA3 (D) neurons was quantified. (n=3 in each group; in each monkey, a total of thirty cells in CA1 or CA3, the average immunofluorescent intensity of these cells was recorded) *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; NS, P > 0.05. Data were presented as mean ± SD.