Figure 6. ANT-DBS activated autophagy in the hippocampus of epileptic monkeys. (A) Analysis of LC3II and p62 by western blotting. (B) Levels of LC3II were decreased in EP and EP-sham-DBS groups. ANT-DBS normalized LC3II level in the EP-DBS group. (n=3 in each group) (C) In the EP and EP-sham-DBS groups, p62 levels were increased, and decreased by ANT-DBS. (n=3 in each group) (D) Autophagosome observed by TEM. The left column shows the morphology of the autophagosome by TEM. In the other columns, the autophagosomes (white arrow) are shown around the nucleus. (E) The number of autophagosomes was counted in each view. A reduced number of autophagosomes were observed in the EP and EP-sham-DBS groups compared with the control group, which was increased by ANT-DBS. (n=3 in each group; in each monkey, twenty cells were randomly selected, and the average number of autophagosome for each monkey was recorded) *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; NS, P > 0.05. Data were presented as mean ± SD. I, control group; II, EP group; III, EP-sham-DBS group; IV, EP-DBS group.