Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 7 pp 6370—6384

NO up-regulates migraine-related CGRP via activation of an Akt/GSK-3β/NF-κB signaling cascade in trigeminal ganglion neurons

Figure 3. SNAP induces GSK-3β activation and Akt inactivation. (A) Cultured primary cells were exposed to 0.25 mM, 0.5 mM, and 1.0 mM SNAP for 2 h, followed by incubation in NB medium without SNAP for an additional 24 h, after which cells were harvested and subjected to Western blotting for total and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β. (B, C) Blots were quantified, after which the ratios of phosphorylated vs total Akt and GSK-3β were calculated.