Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 7 pp 6370—6384

NO up-regulates migraine-related CGRP via activation of an Akt/GSK-3β/NF-κB signaling cascade in trigeminal ganglion neurons

Figure 4. GSK-3β inhibition abrogates SNAP-induced expression and production of pain-related factors. (AC) Cultured primary cells were exposed to 0.25 mM, 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM SANP for 2 h, or pre-treated with the GSK-3β inhibitor AR-A014418 (10 μM) for 30 min, followed by treatment with 1.0 mM SNAP for 2 h. After culturing in NB medium without SANP, for an additional 24 h qPCR was performed to monitor the expression of CGRP in cells (A), SP (B) and CCK (C). Alternatively, ELISA was conducted to determine the protein levels of CGRP (D), SP (E) and PGE2 (F) in culture medium.