Figure 6. ES prevents VbP-induced oxidative stress in THP-1 macrophages. (A) Western blot analysis of the expression of 4-HNE adducts, catalase, and MnSOD. (B) ELISA determination of 4-HNE secretion. (C) Quantification of catalase activity (colorimetric detection). (D) Flow cytometry analysis of ROS generation in DCFH-DA labeled macrophages. n = 3; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, and ***P<0.001 vs. control cells; #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, and ###P<0.001 vs. VbP-treated cells.