**Figure 1.** **Effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on spatial learning and memory in young mice.** (**A**) Flowchart of the neuron electroporation experiment. (**B**) Flowchart of the MWM experiment. (**C**) Dual sevoflurane exposure decreased axon length in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. (**D**) The statistical results for the axon length between the two groups. Scale bars = 100 μm; approximately 70 cells from three independent experiments were counted during the statistical analysis (*P* = 0.0147*, Student’s t-test). (**E**) The escape latency on the 4^{th} day of acquisition training was increased in the sevoflurane group (Sev x 2 vs Con x 2, *F* = 0.828, *P* = 0.028*, Student’s t-test, N = 10). During the probe trial, the escape latency was also increased in the dual sevoflurane group (Sev x 2 vs Con x 2, *F* = 1.35, *P* = 0.007**, Student’s t-test, N = 10). (**F**) During the probe trial, the control group spent much more time in the target quadrant than other quadrants (*P* < 0.001***, N = 10, one-way ANOVA), while the sevoflurane group spent similar periods in the four quadrants (*P* > 0.05, N = 10, one-way ANOVA). TQ, LQ, OQ, and RQ is the target quadrant, the left quadrant, the opposite quadrant, and the right quadrant, respectively. (**G**) Dual sevoflurane exposure decreased the time spent in the target quadrant (*F* = 0.143, *P* < 0.0001****, N = 10, Student’s t-test). (**H**) Sevoflurane decreased the platform crossing times (*F* = 1.156, *P* = 0.0033**, N=10, Student’s t-test). (**I**) Sevoflurane did not affect swimming speed compared with the same variables in the control group mice. Data are expressed as the means ± S.D. **P* < 0.05, ***P*<0.01, ****P*<0.001.*****P* < 0.0001.