Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 8 pp 6852—6864

Swimming exercise stimulates IGF1/ PI3K/Akt and AMPK/SIRT1/PGC1α survival signaling to suppress apoptosis and inflammation in aging hippocampus

Figure 4. Effects of exercise training on inflammatory proteins. The representative protein levels of TNFα, p-NFκB, iNOS and COX2 prepared from hippocampi in the control, exercise, aging and aging with exercise rats were measured by Western blotting analysis (n=3). The protein expression folds were normalized with β-actin. **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, significant differences from the control group. ##P <0.05, significant differences from the D-galactose-induced aging group.