Figure 5. T1-11 improves spatial learning, impaired memory, and sport activity decline in D-gal–induced aging mice. For behavioral study, N = 6 mice per group were used. Morris water maze was performed. (A) Mean escape latency time (sec) to reach hidden platform during training session. Time spent in the target quadrant (where the platform was located during the hidden platform training session) during the probe test (B) and number of platform crossings over the previous platform place during the probe test (C) were examined. (D) Total swimming distance and average of swimming speed were examined. Data are mean±SEM (n = 6). Significant difference between control and D-gal-induced aging mice is indicated by * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 compared with the control group. Significant difference between the mice treated with D-gal alone and the mice treated with D-gal combined with Vit.E or T1-11 is indicated by #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 compared with D-gal group.