Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 11 pp 11116—11138

Deoxyelephantopin induces apoptosis via oxidative stress and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity in vitro and in vivo through targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer

Figure 1. DET suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. (A, B) The pharmaceutical chemical structures of DET and GEM. (C, D) Cell viability curves of BxPC-3, CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 cancer cells after DET treatment for 24 h and 48 h were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus CTL. CTL, control. (E) Colony formation capacities of BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells after DET treatment were evaluated by colony formation assays. **P < 0.01 versus CTL. CTL, control. (F) Effect of DET on the migration abilities of BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells were detected by wound healing assays. **P < 0.01 versus CTL. CTL, control. (G, H) Effect of DET on the migration and invasive abilities of BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells were measured using Transwell assay. **P < 0.01 versus CTL. CTL, control. Magnification, × 40 (F), × 200 (G, H). Scale bar, 500 μm (F), 100 μm (G, H). DET, deoxyelephantopin. GEM, gemcitabine.