Figure 9. Effects of Dodecyl-TPP on tumor growth. Dodecyl-TPP, another more potent mitochondrially-targeted TPP compound, was tested using low micro-molar concentrations (6.25- and 25-μM). Note that Dodecyl-TPP significantly inhibited tumor growth (by 12% to 40%). Averages are shown + SEM. *p<0.05; ***p<0.001. The structure of Dodecyl-TPP (d-TPP) is also shown. Note the 12-carbon alkyl-chain attached to the lipophilic cation, triphenyl-phosphonium (TPP).