Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 17 pp 16709—16743

Discovering correlates of age-related decline in a healthy late-midlife male birth cohort

Figure 1. The significance of associations between IDP and behavioural variables, for longitudinal correlations. The Manhattan plot shows all results for 454 IDPs against each of the 114 behavioural (51,756 values) adjusted for confounders: age, motion, and head size. Significance is plotted as -log 10 p-values, arranged by behavioural measures on the x-axis, multiple testing thresholds across all pairwise associations are marked with a horizontal line (FWE: 6.01 x 10-6; FDR: 5.03 x 10-5). IDPs are distinguished by plotting colour, determined by MRI modality and image processing tool applied to derive each measure. This created 6 imaging subdomains: 1) T1w percentage brain volume change (PBVC) modelled by SIENA 2) T1w global brain volume measures (normalized and unnormalized for head size) modelled by SIENAX (yellow), 3) T1w subcortical structures (shapes and volumes) modelled by FIRST (green), 4) T1w total grey matter volume within grey matter region-of-interests using partial volume estimates derived from FAST (red), 5) T2w-FLAIR total volume of white matter hyperintensities modelled by BIANCA (pink), 6) dMRI estimates of diffusivity measures contained within 48 standard-space WM tract region-of-interests modelled by TBSS (blue). Abbreviations: IQ-11, IQ-20, IQ-57, IQ-63 = general intelligence score ages ~11, ~20, ~57, and ~63; MOT = motor task; ME = mean error; ML = mean latency; PAL = paired associates learning; TE adjusted = total errors adjusted; TT Adjusted = total trials adjusted; PRM = pattern recognition memory; SD = standard deviation; CL = correct latency; RTI = reaction time task; MT = movement time; RT = reaction time; RVP = rapid visual processing task; MLB1-4 = mean latency block 1 to 4; SOC = Stockings of Cambridge; Mean Initial TT 5 Moves = mean initial total time 5 moves task; Mean Subse TT 5 Moves = mean subsequent thinking time 5 moves task; SRM = spatial recognition memory; TM = trail making task; SEP = social economic position; MDI = Major Depression Inventory; CBF = cerebral blood flow; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.