High salt activates astrocytes and up-regulates VEGF. (A) Representative images of double immunofluorescence staining for GFAP(red) and VEGF(green) in the brain specimens of rats; DAPI is stained in blue(n=5 per group). (B, C) Expression of GFAP and VEGF in the brain tissues from rats analyzed by western blotting and densitometry (n=5 per group). (D) Immunofluorescence staining of GFAP and AQP4 in red. (E, F) Expression of AQP4 and GFAP analyzed by western blotting in NaCl-treated astrocytes; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, compared with NS. At least three separate experiments were conducted; means ± SD.