Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 12 pp 11781—11793

Astrocyte-derived VEGF increases cerebral microvascular permeability under high salt conditions

Figure 3. Increased expression of VEGF is mediated by NFκB/MMP-9 pathway. (A, B) HS increases protein levels of VEGF, MMP9 and p-p65. (C) Immunofluorescence staining of NaCl (40mM, 24 h)-induced p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation; (D) HS upregulates mRNA expression levels of VEGF. (E) SN50 antagonized NaCl-induced up-regulation of VEGF and MMP-9 protein expression. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, compared with NS, n=3, means ± SD.