Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 12 pp 12002—12018

Plasma endothelial cells-derived extracellular vesicles promote wound healing in diabetes through YAP and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

Figure 2. Plasma ED-EVs inhibit DSF premature senescence. (A) SA-β-gal detected skin fibroblast senescence after ED-EVs treatment at the concentration of 5 μg/mL or 50 μg/mL. At the same passage times (3 generations) and culture conditions, compared with the healthy volunteers' skin fibroblasts (HSF), the activity of SA-β-gal in skin fibroblasts of diabetic patients (DSF) was increased significantly, but decreased after the action of ED-EVs; (B) Western blot analysis detected the levels of H2A.X, p16INK4A in fibroblast; (C) ELISA measured SASP level (MMP-3, IL-6 and IL-1β) in fibroblast; (D) H2DCFDA probe measured ROS level in in fibroblast. compared with the blank group, ***p < 0.001. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Repetitions = 3.