Figure 5. Plasma ED-EVs inhibit DSF premature senescence through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. (A and C) Western blot analysis detected levels of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway-and senescence-related proteins. (B) SA-β-gal assay detected DSF senescence. (D) ELISA measured SASP level (MMP-3, IL-6 and IL-1β) in DSF. (E) H2DCFDA probe measured ROS level in DSF. Compared with the blank group, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; compared to the ED-EVs group, #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001. Data in panels (A and D) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, and data in panels (B, C and E) were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Repetitions = 3.