Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 12 pp 11325—11336

CD38 inhibition by apigenin ameliorates mitochondrial oxidative stress through restoration of the intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio and Sirt3 activity in renal tubular cells in diabetic rats

Figure 1. Apigenin ameliorates renal fibrosis and inflammatory gene expression in diabetic rats. (A) Representative photographs of MT staining (scale bar: 100 μm) and IHC of Kim-1 in the tubulointerstitial area (scale bar: 100 μm) and the mitochondrial morphology observed under transmission electron microscopy (TM) scale bar: 500 nm). (BE) Quantitative RT-PCR of collagen III (B), Kim-1 (C), TNF-α (D), and IL-6 (E) mRNA normalized to expression of 18S, in the renal cortex (n=6). All data represent the mean ± standard deviation (SD). *p<0.01 vs. other groups. ZLRs; Zucker lean rats, ZDFRs; Zucker diabetic fatty rats.