Figure 2. DMC-BH induces apoptosis in GSCs. (A) Morphological changes associated with apoptotic cell death analyzed by TUNEL staining. Red nuclear staining indicates apoptosis, while blue staining suggests normal nuclei. (B) Apoptosis analyzed using Annexin V-FITC/PI-staining flow cytometry. (C) Western analysis of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, PARP, and Bcl-2. (D) Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity measured by ELISA.