Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 16 pp 16083—16098

Chidamide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibits autophagy and exhibits therapeutic implication in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

class="figure-viewer-img"

Figure 1.

Chidamide decreases autophagic flux in CLL cells. (A) Immunoblotting analysis of autophagic flux in primary CLL cells after chidamide (CHI, 4μmol/L) treatment for 24 hours in the presence or absence of chloroquine (CQ, 10μmol/L). LC3 and SQSTM1 are indicated, as well as GAPDH that was used as a loading control. Shown are two representative blots from the samples of 16 patients. (B) Electron microscopic analysis of primary CLL cells in the presence or absence of chidamide (CHI, 4μmol/L) treatment for 24 hours. Arrows indicate autophagic structures and arrowheads indicate fragments of nucleus. (C, D) Immunoblotting analysis of autophagic flux in MEC-1 and JVM-3 cell lines respectively after chidamide (CHI, 8 or 16μmol/L) treatment for 24 hours in the presence or absence of chloroquine (CQ, 10μmol/L). (E) Levels of LC3 and SQSTM1 were assessed by immunoblotting in the presence or absence of chidamide (8μmol/L) in time-course experiments in MEC-1 cell line. GAPDH was used as a loading control. The bar graphs and the line graph showed the expression level of proteins with respect to the control groups. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ***P<0.0001.