Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 14 pp 15134—15156

Signatures of cell stress and altered bioenergetics in skin fibroblasts from patients with multiple sclerosis

Figure 2. Markers P53 and P21 have altered profiles in MS skin fibroblasts. (A) Skin fibroblasts were cultured in standard media conditions for one week. Total RNA was harvested and the gene expression level of P53 was determined by RT-PCR (Ctrl, n = 20; MS, n = 22; ALS, n = 9). The relative fold change compared to the average of all controls is shown. (B and C) Skin fibroblasts were seeded and cultured for 24 hours in standard media conditions (Ctrl, n = 13; MS, n = 26; ALS, n = 10). The cells were either untreated or treated with gamma irradiation and incubated for an additional ten days prior to harvesting total RNA. The gene expression levels of P16 and P21 were determined using RT-PCR. (AC) All gene expression levels were normalized to the TATA box protein gene. Each data point represents a unique cell line. The average of replicates is shown with the 95% confidence interval. Significance was determined using one-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey test. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; ****, P < 0.0001. Abbreviations: ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Ctrl, control; Irrad, irradiated; MS, multiple sclerosis; Unt, untreated.