Figure 5. Lactate production is increased in MS skin fibroblasts. Skin fibroblasts from MS (n = 25-29), ALS (n = 9-10), and control cells (n = 20-21) were incubated in media (without FBS) for 24 hours or 48 hours prior to measuring lactate concentrations in the media. (A) Significant changes between groups were determined using two-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey test (repeated measures with mixed model). Each data point represents a unique skin fibroblast sample. Determined lactate concentrations were normalized to cellular protein content. The average of replicates is shown with the 95% confidence interval. (B) Summary data of detected lactate concentrations after 24 or 48 hours. The average of all data is shown per group with the 95% confidence interval. *, P < 0.05, ***, P < 0.001; ****, P < 0.0001. Abbreviations: ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Ctrl, control; MS, multiple sclerosis.