Figure 3. DHC prevented TNF-α-induced expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β. Cells were stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of 10 and 20 μM for 24 h. (A). mRNA of IL-6 and IL-1β as measured by real-time PCR; (B). Secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β as measured by ELISA (****, P<0.0001 vs. vehicle group; $$, $$$$, P<0.01, 0.0001 vs. TNF-α treatment group).