Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 17845—17862

Metformin improves cognition of aged mice by promoting cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis

Figure 1. Metformin improved spatial learning and memory of older mice in the Morris water maze test. (A) Escape latency of 10–12-month mice treated with metformin (Met) (n = 9) was significantly shorter compared with the control group (Ctrl) (n = 11). (B) Probe tests conducted 24 h after the acquisition phase indicated that the first time-to-platform of 10–12-month-old mice treated with metformin was shorter than the control group. (C) No difference in swim speed was observed between control and metformin-treated groups. (D) Mean escape latency during 5 training days in 20-month-old mice treated with different doses of metformin. (E) Probe tests conducted after 24 h of the acquisition phase indicated that first time-to-platform was shorter in 20-month-old mice treated with higher doses of metformin than the control group. (F) No difference in swim speeds were observed between control and metformin-treated groups. (Number of mice in control group n=5, in 0.5mg/kg group n=6, in 5mg/kg group n=6, in 15mg/kg group n=5). The overall significance between two groups was determined by Student’s t-test, among three group was determined by one-way ANOVA. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, ns, not significant.