Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 17845—17862

Metformin improves cognition of aged mice by promoting cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis

Figure 3. Metformin rejuvenation of neurogenic potential in aged mice. (A) The subventricular zone (SVZ) of old mice treated with metformin (n ≥ 3) immunostained with the neural stem cell marker, Sox2, and newborn neuronal marker, DCX. Right: Quantification of (B) Sox2+ cells and (C) DCX+ cells. (D) SVZ of old mice immunostained with the neuronal cell marker, NeuN, and cell proliferation marker, BrdU. Right: Quantification of (E) BrdU+ /NeuN+ cells to quantify newborn neurons. (F) Representative fields of GFAP and Tuj1 immunofluorescence staining of cultured neural stem cells treated with metformin after 7 days of spontaneous differentiation. Right: Statistical analysis of percentages of (G) GFAP+ cells and (H) Tuj1+ cells. Scale bar = 100 μm. Ctrl: Control; Met: Metformin. The overall significance between two groups was determined by Student’s t-test. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, ns, not significant.