Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 17845—17862

Metformin improves cognition of aged mice by promoting cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis

Figure 5. Metformin enhanced relative mRNA expression of GAPDH in the glycolysis pathway and was associated with relative mRNA-related angiogenesis and neurogenesis and increased expression. (A) Relative GAPDH mRNA expression of neural stem cells (NSCs) treated with metformin and iodoacetic acid (IA), as examined by qRT-PCR. (B) Relative VEGFR2 mRNA expression of NSCs treated with metformin and IA, as examined by qRT-PCR. (C) and (D), Relative Tuj1 (C) and GFAP (D) mRNA expression of NSCs treated with metformin and IA, as examined by qRT-PCR. Ctrl: Control; Met: Metformin. The overall significance between two groups was determined by Student’s t-test, among three group was determined by one-way ANOVA. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, ns, not significant.