Figure 5. Autophagy blockage abolishes the protective effects of HMGA2 overexpression against H2O2-induced cell death, cell senescence and decreased S-phase cell number. hTSCs transfected with lenti-HMGA2 (HMGA2 OE) or the empty virus (nc) were incubated with 3-MA and rapamycin for 24 h, alone or in combination as indicated, and subsequently exposed to 0.5 mM H2O2 treatment. Untransfected cells (mock) were included for comparison. (A) Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 assay after 24 h of H2O2 treatment. (B) Cell senescence was assessed by β-gal staining after 72 h of H2O2 treatment. (C) Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry after 24 h of H2O2 treatment. The data shown are from three replicates and are indicated as mean ± SD. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.