Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 18501—18521

D-galactose induces senescence of glioblastoma cells through YAP-CDK6 pathway

Figure 10. A working model of D-gal-induced senescence of GBM cells. D-gal treatment inactivates YAP-CDK6 pathway in GBM cells, inducing the characteristics of senescent cells, such as reduced cell proliferation, hypertrophic morphology, increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and upregulation of several senescence-associated genes such as p16, p53, and NF-κB, and downregulation of Lamin B1. Metformin, an anti-ageing agent, reverses D-gal-induced senescence of GBM cells.