Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 17815—17844

Alzheimer’s disease as a systems network disorder: chronic stress/dyshomeostasis, innate immunity, and genetics

Figure 1. Comparison of AD plasma biomarkers and classical acute-phase response reactants. Shared factors are highlighted in bold red. Most AD biomarkers that are not classical acute phase response reactants represent either APR-related proteins or locally produced stress and/or signaling factors (see discussion in the text). Abbreviations: CRP (C-reactive protein); TBG (thyroxine-binding globulin); CBG (corticosteroid-binding globulin, alias transcortin, serpin A6); VDBP (vitamin D-binding protein); RBP (retinol-binding protein); AGP (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, a.k.a. orosomucoid); IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1); G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor); Aβ40 (amyloid-beta 1-40); IGFBP2 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2); IL-1ra (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist; IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-2 (interleukins 6, 10, 13, 4, and 2, correspondingly); TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha); IFN-γ (interferon gamma); PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor); BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor); RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, a.k.a. CCL5, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5); NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule); sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products); ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule); NAP2 (nucleosome assembly protein 2); NSE (neuron-specific enolase); PPY (pancreatic polypeptide); PSA-ACT (prostate-specific antigen-alpha-1-chymotrypsin complex); Chk2 (serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2); MIP1α (macrophage inhibitory protein 1-alpha); CgA (chromogranin A); ApoJ (Clusterin), ApoE, ApoB100, ApoA1, ApoA4, ApoC1, ApoC3, ApoM, and ApoB (apolipoproteins J, E, B100, A1, A4, C1, C3, M, correspondingly). Compilation references: acute-phase response reactants [49, 52, 53, 57, 58]; AD plasma biomarkers [5963].