Figure 5. The p38 pathway is involved in visfatin-induced ICAM-1 synthesis and monocyte adhesion. (A–C) OASFs were pretreated with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or transfected with p38 siRNA, then incubated with visfatin for 24 h. ICAM-1 levels were examined by RT-qPCR, Western blot and ELISA assays. (D) OASFs were treated with the same conditions as those described in (A). THP-1 cells loaded with BCECF-AM were added to OASFs for 6 h, then THP-1 cell adherence was measured by fluorescence microscopy. (E, F) OASFs were incubated with visfatin for the indicated time intervals or pretreated with AMPK inhibitors then stimulated with visfatin, and p38 phosphorylation was examined by Western blot. * p<0.05 compared with the control group; # p<0.05 compared with the visfatin-treated group.