Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 17 pp 17738—17753

Anti-aging effects of Ribes meyeri anthocyanins on neural stem cells and aging mice

Figure 1. Ribes meyeri anthocyanins rescue the senescence phenotype of mouse neural stem cells (mNSCs). (A) Neurospheres clonally derived from 23-month-old (23M-NSC) and 3-week-old (3W-NSC) mouse brains and treated with 100 pg/mL R. meyeri anthocyanins. (B) Differences in neurosphere numbers between 23M-NSC and 3W-NSC. (C) The shape of 3W-NSC neurospheres was more uniform, with an increased number and size (20–50 μm) compared with 23M-NSC neurospheres. (D, E) Treatment with R. meyeri anthocyanins increased the numbers of both 3W-NSC- and 23M-NSC-derived neurospheres compared with controls. (FH) In 23M-NSCs treated with 100 pg/mL R. meyeri anthocyanins for 48 h, p16ink4a mRNA expression, cell cycle, and relative telomere lengths were measured. (F) Cell senescence marker p16ink4a mRNA expression detected by qRT-PCR. (G) Cell cycles were determined using flow cytometry. (H) qRT-PCR detection of relative telomere length. (I) Immunofluorescence staining of TuJ1 and GFAP in 23M-NSCs treated with R. meyeri anthocyanins and control. (J) Quantification of (I). Data are presented as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.0001 compared with untreated cells.