Figure 2. Ribes meyeri anthocyanins enhance mouse memory and learning abilities by increasing neural stem cells (NSCs). (A) Time taken to find the platform. (B) Time taken to first reach the platform. (C) Mean velocity to find the platform. (D) Distance swum before finding the platform. (E, F) Treatment with R. meyeri anthocyanins increased neurosphere number and size compared with controls. (G) Neurospheres of 50–100 μm in size were increased in number by R. meyeri anthocyanin treatment in mice. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.0001 compared with untreated cells. “n” indicates the number of animals in each experimental group.