Figure 5. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays an essential role in naringenin (Nar)-mediated anti-aging effects. (A) Summary of gene expressions in mouse blood, as determined by RNA-seq. (B) Heatmap showing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the blood between control and Nar-treated mice. DEGs were identified by a fold change of > 2.0 or < 0.5. (C) Bar graph showing the major correlated signaling pathways. (D) Heatmap showing DEGs in the TNF signaling pathway (E) Plasma TNF-α levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (E) p16ink4a gene expression levels, as determined by qRT-PCR. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.0001 compared with the control group.