Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25138—25152

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes prevent osteoarthritis by regulating synovial macrophage polarization

Figure 1. Characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). (A) BMSCs exhibited a representative spindle-like morphology. Scale bar: 100 μm. (B) BMSCs showed osteogenic pluripotent differentiation abilities, adipogenesis, and cartilage formation. Scale bar: 100 μm. (C) Flow cytometry analysis of characteristic cell surface markers of BMSCs. The mesenchymal markers, CD44 and CD90, were positive, while the hematopoietic cell surface marker, CD45, was negative.