Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25138—25152

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes prevent osteoarthritis by regulating synovial macrophage polarization

Figure 6. BMSC exosomes promote the phenotypic transformation of macrophages from M1 to M2 and reduce inflammation. (A) The protocol of the co-culture system. (B) Detection of CD11c (M1 marker) and CD206 (M2 marker) expression in RAW264.7 cells by flow cytometry. (C) and (D) Detection of INOS (M1 marker) by immunofluorescence in RAW264.7 cells and statistical results. Scale bar: 100 μm. (E) and (F) Detection and analysis of Arg-1 (M2 marker) in RAW264.7 cells by immunofluorescence and statistical results. Scale bar: 100 μm. (GJ) Determination of the cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 in supernatants. *p < 0.05 compared to the Control group; # p < 0.05 compared to the LPS group.