Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25373—25394

Effect of paternal age on offspring birth defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram for a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 3581 articles were identified after duplicates removed. Out of the 3581 articles, 3412 articles were directly excluded after reading the titles and abstracts, and 131 articles were excluded for some reasons after reading the full text. Finally, 38 and 11 studies were included in the systematic evaluation and meta-analysis, respectively.