Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25373—25394

Effect of paternal age on offspring birth defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Figure 2. Forest plot presenting the effect of young and old father on urogenital abnormalities in their offspring: Only two studies could be included in the meta-analysis. Both young and old father increased the risk of urogenital abnormalities in offspring (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.03-2.19; OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.07-1.52, respectively). There was no heterogeneity in these two subgroups (I2=0.0%, 0.0%, respectively) amongst the studies.